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正しく現在[時制]を使い分けすることができますか?

2017.01.24

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Have a look at the sentences below. Try to complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb. You can check your answers at the bottom.


1. Every Monday, Sally (drive)  her kids to football practice. 

2. Usually, I (work)  as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study)  French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris. 

3. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John (sleep) 

4. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It (rain) 

5. I (have)  the same car for more than ten years. I'm thinking about buying a new one.

6. I hate living in Seattle because it (rain, always) 

7. Lately, I (think)  about changing my career because I (become)  dissatisfied with the conditions at my company.

8. I (love)  chocolate since I was a child. You might even call me a "chocoholic."

9. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (say)  because everybody (talk)  so loudly. 

10. Matt and Sarah (have)  some difficulties in their relationship lately, so they (go)  to a marriage counselor. I hope they work everything out.

11. Justin (write, currently)  a book about his adventures in Tibet. I hope he can find a good publisher when he is finished. 

12.    Jim: Do you want to come over for dinner tonight?
    Denise: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I (go)  to a movie tonight with some friends. 

13. The business cards (be, normally )  printed by a company in New York. Their prices (be)  inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good. 

14. John (work)  for the government since he graduated from Harvard University. Until recently, he (enjoy)  his work, but now he is talking about retiring.

15. This delicious chocolate (be)  made by a small chocolatier in Zurich, Switzerland.

16.     Judy: How long (be)  in Canada?
      Claude: I (study)  here for more than three years.

17. I (see)  Judy for more than five years and during that time I (see)  many changes in her personality.


Was it difficult? Check your answers below in red.


1. drives
2. work; am studying
3. is sleeping
4. is raining
5. have had
6. is (always) raining
7. have been thinking; have become
8. have loved
9. are saying; is talking
10. have been having; are going (have been going)
11. is (currently) writing
12. am going
13. are (normally); are
14. has worked (has been working);has enjoyed
15. is
16. have you been; have been studying
17. have been seeing; have seen

Even though Present tenses are some of the earliest tenses we learn in English, they can still be confusing to both new learners, and people who have been studying for a long time.  There are four "present" tenses in English, please have a look at the explanations below.  If you would like to practice, don't forget to join Fujisawa LC's PRESENT TENSES SEMINAR on either January 26th or January 28th.

Simple Present

Examples:

  • You speak English.
  • Do you speak English?
  • You do not speak English.

Complete List of Simple Present Forms

USE 1 Repeated Actions

Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do.

Examples:

  • play tennis.
  • She does not play tennis.
  • Does he play tennis?
  • The train leaves every morning at 8 AM.
  • The train does not leave at 9 AM.
  • When does the train usually leave?
  • She always forgets her purse.
  • He never forgets his wallet.
  • Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun.
  • Does the Sun circle the Earth?

USE 2 Facts or Generalizations

The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things.

Examples:

  • Cats like milk.
  • Birds do not like milk.
  • Do pigs like milk?
  • California is in America.
  • California is not in the United Kingdom.
  • Windows are made of glass.
  • Windows are not made of wood.
  • New York is a small city. It is not important that this fact is untrue.

USE 3 Scheduled Events in the Near Future

Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well.

Examples:

  • The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.
  • The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM.
  • When do we board the plane?
  • The party starts at 8 o'clock.
  • When does class begin tomorrow?

USE 4 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now. This can only be done with Non-Continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs.

Examples:

  • am here now.
  • She is not here now.
  • He needs help right now.
  • He does not need help now.
  • He has his passport in his hand.
  • Do you have your passport with you?

 

Present Continuous

Examples:

  • You are watching TV.
  • Are you watching TV?
  • You are not watching TV.
USE 1 Now
Use the Present Continuous with Normal Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.Examples:
  • You are learning English now.
  • You are not swimming now.
  • Are you sleeping?
  • am sitting.
  • am not standing.
  • Is he sitting or standing?
  • They are reading their books.
  • They are not watching television.
  • What are you doing?
  • Why aren't you doing your homework?
USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now
In English, "now" can mean: this second, today, this month, this year, this century, and so on. Sometimes, we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress; however, we might not be doing it at this exact second.Examples: (All of these sentences can be said while eating dinner in a restaurant.)
  • am studying to become a doctor.
  • am not studying to become a dentist.
  • am reading the book Tom Sawyer.
  • am not reading any books right now.
  • Are you working on any special projects at work?
  • Aren't you teaching at the university now?
USE 3 Near Future
Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future.Examples:
  • am meeting some friends after work.
  • am not going to the party tonight.
  • Is he visiting his parents next weekend?
  • Isn't he coming with us tonight?



Present Perfect

Examples:

  • You have seen that movie many times.
  • Have you seen that movie many times?
  • You have not seen that movie many times.

Unspecified Use before now:

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.

Examples:

  • have seen that movie twenty times.
  • I think I have met him once before.
  • There have been many earthquakes in California.
  • People have traveled to the Moon.
  • People have not traveled to Mars.
  • Have you read the book yet?
  • Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
  • A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
    B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.


How do you actually use the Present Perfect?

The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:

Topic 1- Experience

You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.

Examples:

  • have been to France.
    This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.
  • have been to France three times.
    You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.
  • have never been to France.
    This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.
  • I think I have seen that movie before.
  • He has never traveled by train.
  • Joan has studied two foreign languages.
  • A: Have you ever met him?
    B: No, I have not met him.


Topic 2- Change over time

We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.

Examples:

  • You have grown since the last time I saw you.
  • The government has become more interested in arts education.
  • Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.
  • My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.



Topic 3- Accomplishments
We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.

Examples:

  • Man has walked on the Moon.
  • Our son has learned how to read.
  • Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
  • Scientists have split the atom.



Time Expressions with Present Perfect
When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important.

Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.

Examples:

  • Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
  • have seen that movie six times in the last month.
  • They have had three tests in the last week.
  • She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.
  • My car has broken down three times this week.
Notice:

"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. "In the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.

Examples:

  • went to Mexico last year.
    I went to Mexico in the calendar year before this one.
  • have been to Mexico in the last year.
    I have been to Mexico at least once at some point between 365 days ago and now.



Present Pefect Continuous

Examples:

  • You have been waiting here for two hours.
  • Have you been waiting here for two hours?
  • You have not been waiting here for two hours.


USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.

Examples:

  • They have been talking for the last hour.
  • She has been working at that company for three years.
  • What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?
  • James has been teaching at the university since June.
  • We have been waiting here for over two hours!
  • Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?



USE 2 Recently, Lately

You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning.

Examples:

  • Recently, I have been feeling really tired.
  • She has been watching too much television lately.
  • Have you been exercising lately?
  • Mary has been feeling a little depressed.
  • Lisa has not been practicing her English.
  • What have you been doing?

Don't forget to sign up for the seminar this week!



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